The high energetic particle package (HEPP) on-board the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) was launched on February 2, 2018. This package includes three independent detectors: HEPP-H, HEPP-L, and HEPP-X. HEPP-H and HEPP-L can detect energetic electrons from 100 keV to approximately 50 MeV and protons from 2 MeV to approximately 200 MeV. HEPP-X can measure solar X-rays in the energy range from 1 keV to approximately 20 keV. The objective of the HEPP payload was to provide a survey of energetic particles with high energy, pitch angle, and time resolutions in order to gain new insight into the space radiation environments of the near-Earth system. Particularly, the HEPP can provide new measurements of the magnetic storm related precipitation of electrons in the slot region, and the dynamics of radiation belts. In this paper, the HEPP scientific data sets are described and initial results are provided. The scientific data can show variations in the flux of energetic particles during magnetic storms.
The electromagnetic satellite Zhangheng 01 (ZH-01) was successfully launched on February 2, 2018. The GNSS Radio Occultation (GRO) receiver on board the satellite is able to observe the occultation events of GPS and BeiDou navigation satellites. We analyzed the data acquired during the in-orbit testing period. We concludes that the GRO ionosphere inversion results are reasonable, the trend is correct, the satellite can observe about 600 ionosphere occultation events each day. The global coverage of more than 30000 consecutive GRO events in more than two months were analyzed and compared with COSMIC observations: both the GRO and COSMIC occultation can realize global coverage: the NmF2 and HmF2 global distributions are similar and change obviously with latitude. We used three digisondes at different latitudes to analyze and compare the spatio-temporally consistent GRO data: the RMSE of GRO NmF2 relative to digisonde is better than 9.41%, the correlation coefficient is better than 0.8682: the relative RMSE of HmF2 is better than 7.80% and the correlation coefficient is better than 0.7066.
This paper reports, for the first time, observation results of the Coherent Beacon System (CBS) onboard the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite-1 (CSES-1). We describe the CBS, and the Computerized Ionospheric Tomography (CIT) algorithm program is validated by numerical experiment. Two examples are shown, for daytime and nighttime respectively. The Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) can be seen, and the northern crest core is located at ~20°N in the reconstruction image at 07:28 UTC on 20 July 2018 (daytime). Disturbances are shown in the reconstruction image at 18:40 UTC on 13 July 2018 (nighttime). We find that beacon measurements are more consistent with ionosonde measurements than model results, by comparing NmF2 at three sites at Lanzhou, Chongqing, and Kunming; consistency with ionosonde measurements validates beacon measurements. Finally, we have studied Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) variations from ground to ~500 km (the height of CSES-1 orbit) and ratios of VTEC between beacon measurements and CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) data. VTEC variation from ground to ~500 km has a range of 7.2–16.5 TECU for the daytime case and a range of 1.1–1.7 TECU for the nighttime case. The Beacon/CODE ratio of VTEC varies with latitude and time. The mean Beacon/CODE ratio is 0.69 for the daytime case and 0.26 for the nighttime case. The fact that the nighttime case yields lower ratios indicates the higher altitude of the ionosphere during nighttime when the ionosphere is assumed to be a thin layer.
In June 2018, for the first time, the SURA heating facility in Russia , together with the in-orbit China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), carried out a series of experiments in emitting high frequency (HF) O-mode radio waves to disturb the ionosphere. This paper reports data from those experiments, collected onboard CSES, including electric field, in-situ plasma parameters, and energetic particle flux. Five cases are analyzed, two cases in local daytime and three in local nighttime. We find that the pumping wave frequencies f0 in local daytime were close to the critical frequency of the F2 layer foF2, but no pumping waves were detected by the electric field detector (EFD) on CSES even when the emitted power reached 90 MW, and no obvious plasma disturbances were observed from CSES in those two daytime cases. But on June 16, there existed a spread F phenomena when f0 was lower than foF2 at that local daytime period. During the three cases in local nighttime, the pumping waves were clearly distinguished in the HF-band electric field at the emitted frequency with the emitted power only 30 MW; the power spectrum density of the electric field was larger by an order of magnitude than the normal background, with the propagating radius exceeding 200 km. Due to the small foF2 over SURA in June at that local nighttime period,f0 in these three cases were significantly higher than foF2, all belonging to under-dense heating conditions. As for the plasma parameters, only an increase of about 100 K in ion temperature was observed on June 12; in the other two cases (with one orbit without plasma data on June 17), no obvious plasma disturbances were found. This first joint SURA-CSES experiment illustrates that the present orbit of CSES can cross quite close to the SURA facility, which can insure an effective heating time from SURA so that CSES can observe the perturbations at the topside ionosphere excited by SURA in the near region. The detection of plasma disturbances on June 12 with under-dense heating mode in local nighttime provides evidence for likely success of future related experiments between CSES and SURA, or with other HF facilities.
High energy particles are the main target of satellite space exploration; particle storm events are closely related to solar activity, cosmic ray distribution, and magnetic storms. The commonly seen energetic particle (electron) precipitation anomalies include mainly the inner and outer Van Allen radiation belts, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the anomalous stripes excited by artificial electromagnetic waves. The China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), launched in February of 2018, provides a platform for studying ionospheric particle disturbances. This paper reports the first studies of electron precipitation phenomenon based on high energy particle data from the CSES. We find that the global distribution of electron fluxes in the low energy band (0.1–3 MeV) can relatively well reflect the anomalous precipitation belt, which is consistent with results based on the DEMETER satellite, indicating that the quality of the low-energy band payload of the CSES is good. In addition, this paper makes an in-depth study of the electron precipitation belt excited by the NWC artificial VLF electromagnetic transmitter located in Australia, which appears as a typical wisp structure on the energy spectrum. The magnetic shell parameter L corresponding to the precipitation belt ranges from 1.44 to 1.74, which is close to the L value (~1.45) of the NWC transmitter; the energy of the precipitation electrons is between 100 keV and 361.57 keV, among which the precipitation of 213.73 keV electrons is most conspicuous.