Climate system models are useful tools for understanding the interactions among the components of the climate system and predicting/projecting future climate change. The development of climate models has been a central focus of the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (LASG/IAP) since the establishment of the laboratory in 1985. In China, many pioneering component models and fully coupled models of the climate system have been developed by LASG/IAP. The fully coupled climate system developed in the recent decade is named FGOALS (Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model). In this paper, an application-oriented review of the LASG/IAP FGOALS model is presented. The improved model performances are demonstrated in the context of cloud-radiation processes, Asian monsoon, ENSO phenomena, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and sea ice. The FGOALS model has contributed to both CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-phase 5) and IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR5 (the Fifth Assessment Report). The release of FGOALS data has supported the publication of nearly 500 papers around the world. The results of FGOALS are cited ~106 times in the IPCC WG1 (Working Group 1) AR5. In addition to the traditional long-term simulations and projections, near-term decadal climate prediction is a new set of CMIP experiment, progress of LAGS/IAP in the development of near-term decadal prediction system is reviewed. The FGOALS model has supported many Chinese national-level research projects and contributed to the national climate change assessment report. The crucial role of FGOALS as a modeling tool for supporting climate sciences is highlighted by demonstrating the model’s performances in the simulation of the evolution of Earth’s climate from the past to the future.
We present preliminary results of a new global Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation model of the Jovian magnetosphere. The model incorporates mass loading from Jupiter's satellite Io, the planet's fast corotation, and electrostatic coupling between its magnetosphere and ionosphere (M-I coupling). The basic configuration of the Jovian magnetosphere including the equatorial plasma flow pattern, the corotation enforcement current system, and the field aligned currents (FACs) in the ionosphere are presented under an antiparallel interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) condition. The simulation model results for equatorial density and pressure profiles are consistent with results from data-based empirical models. It is also found that there are similarities between the FACs distribution in the ionosphere and the observed aurora features, showing the potential application of the simple ionospheric model to the complicated M-I coupling. This model will help deepen our understanding of the global dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere.
On November 13, 2016, an MW7.8 earthquake struck Kaikoura in South Island of New Zealand. By means of back-projection of array recordings, ASTFs-analysis of global seismic recordings, and joint inversion of global seismic data and co-seismic InSAR data, we investigated complexity of the earthquake source. The result shows that the 2016 MW7.8 Kaikoura earthquake ruptured about 100 s unilaterally from south to northeast (~N28°–33°E), producing a rupture area about 160 km long and about 50 km wide and releasing scalar moment 1.01×1021 Nm. In particular, the rupture area consisted of two slip asperities, with one close to the initial rupture point having a maximal slip value ~6.9 m while the other far away in the northeast having a maximal slip value ~9.3 m. The first asperity slipped for about 65 s and the second one started 40 s after the first one had initiated. The two slipped simultaneously for about 25 s. Furthermore, the first had a nearly thrust slip while the second had both thrust and strike slip. It is interesting that the rupture velocity was not constant, and the whole process may be divided into 5 stages in which the velocities were estimated to be 1.4 km/s, 0 km/s, 2.1 km/s, 0 km/s and 1.1 km/s, respectively. The high-frequency sources distributed nearly along the lower edge of the rupture area, the high-frequency radiating mainly occurred at launching of the asperities, and it seemed that no high-frequency energy was radiated when the rupturing was going to stop.
The potential for devastating earthquakes in the Himalayan orogeny has long been recognized. The 2015 MW7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake has heightened the likelihood that major earthquakes will occur along this orogenic belt in the future. Reliable seismic hazard assessment is a critical element in development of policy for seismic hazard mitigation and risk reduction. In this study, we conduct probabilistic seismic hazard assessment using three different seismogenic source models (smoothed gridded, linear, and areal sources) based on the complicated tectonics of the study area. Two sets of ground motion prediction equations are combined in a standard logic tree by taking into account the epistemic uncertainties in hazard estimation. Long-term slip rates and paleoseismic records are also incorporated in the linear source model. Peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration at 0.2 s and 1.0 s for 2% and 10% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years are estimated. The resulting maps show significant spatial variation in seismic hazard levels. The region of the Lesser Himalaya is found to have high seismic hazard potential. Along the Main Himalayan Thrust from east to west beneath the Main Central Thrust, large earthquakes have occurred regularly in history; hazard values in this region are found to be higher than those shown on existing hazard maps. In essence, the combination of long span earthquake catalogs and multiple seismogenic source models gives improved seismic hazard constraints in Nepal.
Eolian dust preserved in deep-sea sediments of the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) is an important recorder of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes in the Asian inland. To better understand changes in the dust provenances, in this study diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to extract the eolian signal recorded in sediments of ODP Hole 885A recovered from the NPO. First, we systematically investigated sieving effects on the DRS data; then band positions of hematite (obtained from the second order derivative curves of the K-M remission function spectrum derived from the DRS) were used to distinguish different provenances of the eolian dust preserved in the pelagic sediments of this hole. Our results show that the sieving (38 μm) process can suppress effectively the experimental errors. Eolian signatures from Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) sources and non-CLP-sources have been identified in the pelagic sediments of ODP Hole 885A from the late Pliocene to the early Pleistocene. The provenance differences account for the discrepancies in the eolian records recovered from the pelagic sediments in the NPO and profiles in the CLP. Temporal changes in dust provenances are caused by the latitudinal movement of the westerly jet mainstream. The hematite DRS band position is a useful tool to distinguish the provenance of eolian components preserved in pelagic sediments.
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